Friday, September 1, 2017

The Nature and Origin of the New Testament

R. E. Brown. Introduction to New Testament: Nature and Origin of the New Testament.
Bangalore: Theological Publishers, 2004. (pg. 1-21)

The Nature and Origin of the New Testament

Before the term Testament was applied to a set of writings, it referred to God‟s special dealing with mankind. This is covenant which God made with his people and fulfilled in the Jesus Christ. Jeremiah very clearly talks about the “New covenant”. And it was said before the 600years before Jesus‟s birth. The theology of the Christian and Jews who did not accept Jesus led to the thesis that the new testament had taken the place of the Old, mosaic covenant which had become “obsolete”(heb8:6;9:15;12:24) even than the scripture if Israel remained the scripture for Christian. So in the 2nd century Christian used the term New Testament for their writings.
Therefore many people think that Christian has bible today as it was in the beginning, rather books were composed by follower of Jesus Christ. Jesus did not write any books, but all the books contain his revelation. And according to his proclamation the kingdom God was at hand “last time” that was the encouragement for the Christian to not write anything for further generation. However letters was first Christian literature of that we know: even though they were written to address the problem of the church by the Paul who was the great missionary and traveller man who preached gospel town to town and village to village and letter became his means how to live a life with Christ. Gospel: Gospels are the documents which has life of Jesus and work of Jesus Christ. Mark was the first gospel, Luke and Matthew was written after ten of Mark. Acts, Revelation other literary Kinds: Acts is history of Christian from Jerusalem to ending life of Paul in Rome and Revelation is related or rooted with the writing of the Ezekiel and Zachariah and called as the “apocalyptic” literature.
However there were a stand to keep this letter, first things that how this letter was written name, spirit and authority of the apostles. Second important step is addressed Christian communities. Third conformity with the rule of faith, where the term “canon” or “norm” applied to judge books according to faith. The collection took place in which they standard letter which was written before 100 Ad and Gospel 65-100 and seven books (Heb, Rev, Jas, 2&3 John, Jude, 2pet) were accepted as the scripture by view church in 2nd and 4th centuries, but not by all church. But later in the 4th century Greek East and latin accepted as seventy seven books in NT.
R. E. Brown. Introduction to New Testament: Bangalore: Theological Publishers, 2004.
(Pg. 75- 95)
The Religious and Philosophy World of New Testament Time
The Jews of this period would have had some knowledge of non-Jewish religions of the people with whom they has contact; many of those people would have had some knowledge of Jewish religion. In the Palestine even in areas where the most of the people lived was strong influence of the Hellenistic. The period of the Jewish history begin in 539 BC with the Persian release of the captives from Judah who has been held in Babylon so that they might return to Jerusalem and its environs. Josephus wrote that there were three Group of people in Jewish, Pharisees, second Sadducees, third Essenes. And these three groups have their own ways of living in community, and deal with their own department, like Essenes, Sadducees: they are very devoted people and working in temple, scribes.
Therefore the Non-Jewish religion world is no doubt that the early Christian preachers and the NT writers were influence by both the OT and Post OT Judaism as well as they were
also influence by the Non Jewish religion and philosophies of Greco-Roman world. There are many ideas which were taken from the non-Jewish world that shaped the theology or Christology of NT. The Greco-Roman Philosophies, philo and Gnosticism, even though the word philosophy is maintain only one time in NT (col 2:8). But philosophy was also deserved the attention, because it was also part of the non-Jewish religion. E.g Platonism: he talk about the world above and below, because he says to fulfilled their destiny people must escape the material world and go to their true home in that other world. In John the Gospel description about Jesus Christ who has come from above and offer true realities. So philosophy has very much influence the Christian writes.
R.E Brown. Introduction to New Testament. Bangalore: Theological Publishers, 2004. (Pg.
The Political and Social World of New Testament Time
The New Testament was composed or written in the 1st century AD, so that time what was the political situation in both Palestine and Roman Empire as a whole. First third was the period of which Jesus‟ lived. Second third was the period of the Christian proclamations and composition of main Pauline letters. Last third was period increasing gentile dominance in the Christian communication. Greek and Palestine had existed for centuries, but in 332 new period was began after conquering Tyre in Phoenicia, Alexander the Great extended his control over Samaria and Judea. From 323-175 BC: Domisance of Palestine by the competing Hellenistic king and from 175 to 63 BC Antichuse Epiphanes the Maccabean Revalt and the Hasmoneab High Priest. Than from 63 to 4 BC Roman Dominace, Herod the Great, Augustus. And after the death of the Herod Augustus spilt the
realm among three of Herod‟s son. In the Two areas that most touched Jesus‟ life, Archelaus became ethnic of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, while Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and part of the Transjordan. The first period of direct Roman governance in Judea by prefects ending in AD 39-40 and emperor reigned from the 69-96, but after Nero‟s sicide in 68 Vespasian‟s attention was directed toward Rome and in 69 the legions proclaimed him emperor.
Therefore the preceding section gave an overall picture of the polictal history of the Roman Empire in general and of Palestine in particular during the period of our concern. The frist believing in Jeis were Jews, perhaps all the author of the NT were Jews. The memories of Jesus and the writings of his followers are filled with referenace to the Jewish scripture, feasts, institution and tradiation. So there is no doubt about the influence of Judaism on the NT.
More Hooker, The Nature of New Testament Theology: The Gospel of John and New
Testament Theology. (Pg. 249 – 262)
The Gospel of John and New Testament Theology
The gospel of John is product of Christian faith, that is true in the New Testament writings, but yet the fourth Gospel remain as the unique in its radical, unremitting focus in the figure of Jesus himself on his claim to embody in his purpose and word the life giving divine gift to the world. in the fourth Gospel it is as if Jesus generates his own context.
Therefore Luke and Johannine introduction to the ministry of John the bapttist. Luke very careful dates John‟s ministry that began in the fifteenth years if the reign of Tiberius Caesar and provides a range of further information about pilate and herod Antipas,
Philip, Lysanias, Annas and Caiaphas. The perception that tha Gospel of john is a fundamentally Naïve text stems in part from the peculiar characteristic of the Johannine miracle stories that adoupted by the scholar the textual criticism. The self- critical potential of the Johannine text is dramatized within the text itself.
However there are two ending shorter and longer, the text that is summarized and concludes consists of written signs whose role is to elicit faith. If the term sign is to cover the entire content of the fourth Gospel, However its semantic range will have to be greatly extended. It will have to cover not only „miracles‟ but also narrations of non-miraculous events such as the cleansing of the temple, the triumphal entry and the footfashing and account of the passing and resurrection appearance. Both conclusion focuses on the distinction between what is has been written and what remain unwritten, yet develop this distinction in striking different ways. The shorter ending emphasized the sufficiency of what has written and impels the practical irrelevance of what has been omitted. In the contrast the long ending affirms the eyewitness credentials of fictive author, but also asserts the insufficiency of what has been written. Yet this fourth Gospel remains as the unique gospel and this gospel represents the hermeneutical key to the New Testament.
Christopher Rowland and Christopher Tuckett (eds.), The nature of New Testament
Theology: Does the historical Jesus belong with in a New Testament Theology?. Blackwell: Oxford, 2006. (Pg. 231-245)
Does the Historical Jesus’ Belong within A New Testament Theology?
In here we are going see that historical Jesus‟ belong to the New Testament theology. The two definitions or at least clarification are require at the outset with is meant by the
historical Jesus‟ in this context and what is meant by New Testament theology. The first question to answer is very easy, because Jesus is the historical, but second question is raise what is New Testament theology? By the historical Jesus author does not mean the life and teaching of the pre- Easter Jesus. It has almost always been assumed as axiomatic that theology of the New Testament will involve some exposition of the significance of figure of Jesus who is assumed to be historical individual. there are many question has been raise by the various people and some reject death and resurrection of Jesus, e.g as for the Bultmann state famously at the start of his theology itself new testament that the massage of Jesus is presupposition for the theology of the New Testament rather than a part of that theology itself.
Therefore the New Testament theology the teaching of Jesus would occupy a prime position: the first main theme of New Testament theology is Jesus‟ Preaching. Thus very definition of New Testament theology adopted here necessity precludes any inclusion of the teaching of the pre-east Jesus as an integral part of it, even though it may allow a place for it in preface or as a presupposition. However just as the important is the fact that there might be parts of the Gospel tradition which are deemed to be „inauthentic‟ historically, they do not go back to the historical Jesus, but that nevertheless one might wish to affirm theologically as expressing something profoundly important about Jesus and aspects of the Christian Gospel
Therefore the theology of New Testament of theology process of doing more than simply describing the wide range of theologies reflected in the New Testament in any process of critically evaluating such difference and seeking to make theological value judgements about them. So history Jesus Christ belongs inextricably within any attempt to engage in a theology of the New Testament.
Ralph P. Martin. In Dictionary of the letters New Testament and its developments (ed.)
Illinois: IVP, 1997. (Pg. 796-814)
New Testament Theology
Theology is the study of about that means there is also theology in the NT. Let see the biblical theology and New Testament Theology. The first known use of Biblical theology was by W.J christmann in 1607.Biblical theological is protestant systematic theology which is followed by the two volume that OT and NT. The historical criticism and new testament, the long standing ferment over the historical worth of the Bible, traceable in on small measure to spinora and Richard Simon generations earlier, erupted in 1830s and the 1840s. Barth in his commentary on Roman reflected a theological approach to the text that had been progressively eroded in the name of history. in part of Barth was building on outstanding conservation historical scholarship of T. Zahn, J.B. Lightfoot and others. Bultmann is series of articles and books and finally in his theology of the NT Developed a new path which is called “Demythologise” and Hofmann‟s emphasis on what is new called salvation history.
Therefore the contemporary scene is flooded with diversity as to what is understood by NT theology, though most kinds betray threads drawn from one stand or another of the twisted historical skein briefly untangled here. It may be helpful to classify some of the NT theologies of the past hundred years especially those of the last half century. Grant strongly emphasizes the importance of historical anchoring and emphsies the differences Bultmann detects among the varicose theologies of the NT that as a whole is not
more than “a theology in process”. The rest of the book treats an array of doctrines like doctrine of God, doctrine of man, doctrine of Christ considering as it appears in NT.
However, we need to look at the contribution from the Roman Catholic Church. RC scholar has come late in discipline. Despite the popular confessional works of A. Lemonnyer and O. Kuss. R schnackenburg in 1962 deals with the kerygma and theology of the primitive church reconstructs the teaching of Jesus according to the synoptic, summarizes the contributions of the individual synoptic and follow with treatment of Paul, john and rest of the NT writings. They go on and says that salvation is through Christ by response of faith is always mandates.
Hasel, Gerhard. New Testament Theology: Bare Issues in the Current Debate. Michigan:
Eerdmans, 1978. (Pg. 140-170)
The Centre and Unity in New Testament Theology
The one of the most debated question in the NT is “the centre and unity of the NT” the problem of the center of the OT in the current debate on OT theology is not unrelated to the issues in NT theology. A stock reminds us that the emphasis on contradiction and diversity in the Nt is the result of the methodological tendency of historical criticism. Moreover the question concerning the most adequate center of the Nt remains as well as the question whether a center is needed for the presentation of a NT theology.
Therefore Branus answer in the affirmative “unity is found in the three large blocks of the proclamation of Jesus, Paul and in the Fourth Gospel in the way in which man is seen in his position before God. Bruans inner canter of the NT is theological anthropological. Lohse points that if the NT Lacks a unified Christology, than it should be noted that it also
lacks‟s principle of unity anthropology. G Ebeling objects to Braun‟s principle of unity, because it even lacks anything Christian. Indeed Braun‟s theology anthropology is attempted to define the nature of Christianity without speaking about God and Jesus Christ.
The history of the salvation approach as represented by O. Cullmann, G.E Ladd, and L. Goppelt has indicated that under the same name a variety of presentations of different theological roots and aims can come to expression. It is seek to provide the evidence that the main NT types of salvation history rest in Jesus. The main concept of the Bible itself is the Salvation history.
Therefore the concept of covenant of the bible has come into the forefront of Biblical studies in recent years. And it is also serve as the unified theme through Bible, God made with his people, but the fact is that not all the part of the NT related to covenant directly or indirectly. So all the event in NT is related to the Jesus Christ and point to the same event connected with him, even though one can recognized that “in the synoptic, John, Paul and on other among others writers of NT books Jesus is Presented in differing Christological aspects. So as the result many protestant and Roman Catholic recognized in Jesus Christ the centre of the NT.
However W. Beilner suggests that it is the task of NT theology to show how the historical Jesus became the proclaimed exalted Christ. He believes that NT theology is to be understood as a unity only from two aspects, first namely from the proclaimed Jesus as the Christ and “locus” of that proclamation, the existence of the church. Moreover the various people has discuss about the centre and unity of the NT as well as they has talk about the canon within the canon problem. But overall NT started with the Jesus Christ and ending with Jesus Christ which provides the unity and centre of NT is Jesus Christ.

George E. Ladd. A New Testament Theology. (Pg. 684-719)
Unity and Diversity in the New Testament
The question has been raise that is it the New testament in the unity? Because it is comprises twenty- seven books and written by the different authors in different time to different reader. It is very clear that if one author writing a book, sometime is very hard to find that one theme or massage, but Bible is writing by various author in different time by the inspiration of God, with result that the diverse books of Old and New testament present in different ways a coherent and divinely inspired massage. All that has changed in the last two hundred years or so with the rise of modern rationalism and Biblical criticism. In this post-Enlightenment era of biblical is no longer seen as divinely guaranteed unity but as disparate collection of materials that have points in common, but are also characterized by significant diversity. Dunn has argued that there was serious conflict between the Jewish Christianity and the Hellenistic, than arguing that there was a greater unity than is often realized. Moreover division between Jewish and Hellenistic Christian was not just a practical and culture matter, but also a theological issues. And that is debated on the Mosaic Law.
Therefore Luke‟s description of a conciliatory Paul should not be simply dismissed. Not only does Acts make it clear that there was greater harmony between Paul and Jerusalem than is supposed by some critics, but so does Paul himself in his own writings. That such leader are not mentioned more prominently in Paul‟s Letters testifies probably to a strong sense of sharing responsibility in the body of Christ and to an unassuming style of leadership, and it is likely that Jesus‟ teaching on servant ministry has been influential.
However question on the eschatological in John‟s Gospel, it is true that there is much less explicit teaching in the parousia in john than in the synoptic. But this should not too readily be taken to show that John has no strong eschatology. It is striking that in 1john the future expectation is emphatic (2:18-19).
Therefore there were important constraints on Paul and others in the early church. Though there were argument between Paul and His critics, we must be careful not to focus only on the disputed points and not to recognize that on other issues, such as Christology, there is no sign of disagreement between Paul and Jerusalem and that is very clear that NT is full with the massage of God‟s work in save work.
According to E. Kaseman, (German Theologians) states that New Testament theology being from the Paul not from Jesus. Bultmann states that Jesus‟ message is only presupposition. Likewise, so many debate, controversy and contradictions are exists among the scholars as we seen in before articles on the basis of topic. But still theologians are trying to set out the order in our understanding of God and his revelation in Christ and what that meant for the believers and church which recorded in New Testament. And It matters relating to God that expressed by the New Testament as organized with its historical topic, events in order.

Stott, John R.W. “The Living God is a Missionary God”

Stott, John R.W. “The Living God is a Missionary God”
This article is written by John Stott, which talks that mission concept comes not by human’s ideas but it is concept of living God who is a missionary God. In this article, the author potryes God’s mission with the call of Abraham, Promise of Abraham and fulfilment of Promise in his life. (Gen.12:1-4; 17:5) later on, New Testament writers understood the promised of Abraham and fulfilment was not only in the life of the nation of Israel but the  present is an intermediate or gospel fulfilment in Christ and His church. The future will be an ultimate or eschatological fulfilment in the new heaven and the new earth. He says that God is a God of History. In this historical process Jesus Christ, as the seed of Abraham is the key figure and through whom history created (book of genealogy of Jesus Christ where word Abraham was the first). Not only has this he further said that God is the God of Covenant and blessings in order to establish His mission in this Earth through the missions’ activities which comes through the call of Abraham and fulfilment of promised.
However, the author emphasized that God has promised to bless all the families of the earth through Abraham’s seed (Gen.12:3; 22:18). Now we are Abraham’s seed by faith, and the earth’s families will be blessed only by the gospel. That is God’s mission plan before the creations. Therefore, it is the expression that God of the Bible is a missionary God and He controls the entire mission and all missions belongs to Him.
C. Kaiser, Walter, Jr. “Israel’s Missionary Call”
Walter C. Kaiser talks in this article about the Israel’s missionary call during the time of Old Testament because people had a misunderstanding that Old Testament doesn’t have a missionary message or visions. Here, he gives some example of person who were Gentiles coming to faith of Israel’s; Melchizedek (Gen. 14), a priest-king over Salem (Jerusalem), Jethro, a Midianite and Moses’ father-in-law, Naman, and entire people of Nineveh. To convince the missionary call for Israel, the author brings three text from the Bible; Genesis 12:1-3, Exodus 19:4-6 and Psalm 67. Firstly, in Gen. 12:1-3 talks about the proclamation of God’s plan in order to bless the entire nation through missionary work of Israel which was planted on seed of Abraham and we are the heir of him (Rom.4:13). Secondly, in Exodus 19:4-6 talks about participation of God’s priestly family. Here God set apart the people of Israel to perform priest for Him which translate as “royal priest” or “kingly priests” which makes Israel’s missionary role explicit. The same concept occurs in 1Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6 as priesthood of believers. Thirdly, in Ps. 67: says that what God gave through Aaron and the priests to all the peoples may be known upon the earth, our salvation among all the nations (especially Gentiles). This text concern is Israel was to be “a light to the nations” Just as Abraham had been told. So, these all passage conveys the message that Israel was appointed as priest to be light and agent for the surrounding nations of Israel as God promised to bless entire humankind.
Johannes Verkuyl: “The Biblical Foundation for the Worldwide Mission Mandate”
Johannes writes to clarify worldwide mission work in three points of view; Universal Motif, Missionary Motif, and the Antagonistic Motif. The universal motif talks about specifically the motif of rescue and saving where God gives his identity as God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and Yahweh with Moses. Later on one nation of Israel with includes the entire world through Jesus Christ. God’s election of Abraham and Israel concerns the whole world. He deals so intensely with Israel precisely because he is maintaining personal claim on the whole world. To speak to this world in the fullness of time, he needed a people and God chose Israel in prepare them as His universal intentions. And Missionary motif says that Israel elections is not a privilege which she may selfishly keep for herself rather it is a call to serve and light among the nations. It involves a duty to witness among the nations. Author tries to explain this call to Israel as the special recipients of His grace, mercy, justice, and liberating power to be presence witness in the Old Testament. The prophets continually claimed that by Israel act of living out her divine appointment to serve, Israel becomes a sign and bridge for the other nations as missionary of Yahweh. Lastly, Verkuyl describes the motif of antagonism based on the book of Jonah where they had a strong feeling of hatred towards the Gentiles. Israel, the recipient of all God’s revelation, refuses to set foot in alien territory to tell the God’s message of judgement and liberation. Today’s in our context, some churches represents that same lazy and unfaithful churches which doesn’t listen to Lords’ command. With this three motifs, authors tells that biblical mission is founded on the universal concept of liberation and redemption of salvation, missionary zeal as a recipient of God’s grace, mercy and justice in the midst of antagonist territory like Nineveh to serve and be a mission channel for Yahweh.
Geroge Eldon Ladd: The Gospel of the Kingdom
This article deals basically the reign of Kingdom of God in Gospel and it is significance. The Hebrew Christian faith expresses their hope in terms of the Kingdom of God which concept is grounded on OT as well the teachings of Jesus Christ. (Mt. 4:17; 5:20; 7:21). Basically Kingdom of God refers to His reign, His rule, His sovereignty, and His dominion which concept develops from the OT perspectives based on Daniel chapter 2 (dream of King Nebuchadnezzar) as article author George occurred. It interpreted that one nations will arise and dominate the course of world history and Kingdom which shall never be destroyed, nor shall its sovereignty be left to another people probably this Kingdom is pointing to the coming of Jesus and His reign in New Testament. Though this Kingdom is inaugurated by the coming of Messiah but none knows the mystery, and when will the kingdom come in term of fullness. Therefore, article emphasises that our responsibility and motivation should be to carry the message of Kingdom till His second coming with the power and glory. (Mt. 24:14). The message of Kingdom is founded on Mt. 28:19-20 a great commission which means a worldwide evangelization until the end of the age. This fact ties together Matthew 28:19 and Matthew 24:14. And it is our responsibility to fulfil the left out task by Jesus Christ before His ascendant which proper biblical teaching to save the world because many lands today are not open to the gospel. There are places like China, remote villages like India and Muslim countries where doors are closed. If the Lord’s return awaits the evangelization of the world by the church, then Christ second coming and His kingdom also will be delay.
Steven C. Hawthorne. “Mandate on the Mountain”
This article is based on Mt.28: story. Through this story Steven C.  brings the mandate for the mission to His disciples where some of them were still doubtful of Christ’s resurrection and His Lordship. (Mt. 28:16-17). There was something different about Jesus as they watched Him step closer to them. The disciple found him alive from the dead. Through His solid resurrection, He communicates them that all authority and power has been given to Him in heaven and on earth. Therefore, the same authority was given to the disciples as great mandate of mission in Mt. 28:19-20. Through this scripture portion like “Therefore…go and disciple all the people.”  Understood as core of mission mandate not only preaching, teaching or baptizing but “disciple all the people.” Here Jesus did not emphasize the process of communicating the gospel rather to bring a result, a response, a fruit out of their life which will completed by disciplining the people which is not an overnight action or task. Also author gives an important to teaching and baptizing. The baptism is a ritual manifestation which lay by Jesus Himself in order to formed new community as called church in today’s context. And another hand, this article also emphasized the teaching aspects to disciple people in order to make “obey” to the Lord and train people to know and follow Jesus in the fullest way that He could be known.

A Study on the pre-existence of Jesus Christ .is Jesus God or created by God

A Study on the pre-existence of Jesus Christ .is Jesus God or created by God
The meaning of the pre-existence
Is Jesus Really God
Testing the claim the God became man
      3. Identifying the logical options
      4. The critical evidence about Jesus’ Resurrection
          4.1 Empty tomb
      5. The pre-existence of Jesus as God
          5:1 a thought by john the Baptist
          5.2   A thought by the apostle john
          5.3 A thought by Jesus himself
       6. He was controlling the created universe 
       7. The objections of the Jehovah whiteness and Arianism
           7.1 Jehovah’s witnesses
           7:1.2 Christ is God for biblical proofs 
          7.2 Arianism      
        8. The meaning begotten son
         9. The meaning of only begotten son
        In this paper deal with all about the divinity of Jesus. Is Jesus God are create but God. We can see various back Ground and different arguments in this paper.  We can see teaching of the Jehovah witness their argument is Jesus is Not God but created by God but bible says he his God but this paper is going to deal all this problems and tell us Jesus is not creature but he is the creator  
 1. The meaning of the pre-existence
The meaning of the preexistence is previous existence or the Soul before it is union with body.   Jesus Christ existed before he became flesh which means Christ was there before the formation of the world as john 1:1 says in the begging it means. Not the begging of the Jesus it is begging for begging
 2. Is Jesus Really God
         2.1 Testing the claim the God became man
  Evidence of Jesus’ claims
          The term going back to messiah, a Greek form John 1:14;4:25 of the heb messiah, to be sign an anointed person, Hebrew hammasiah the messiah is usually translated in Greek ho Christos  that means the Christ real tenet because the central tenet of Christianity has always been  the convention, that Jesus was  the Christ as I mentioned above for the reason that Jesus’ announced in home town not a quote from the New Testament, he could be argued that on the occasion and even luke also recorded in the luck Gospel,  that Jesus read from the old testament book of the prophet Isaiah . This was very familiar prophecy that the Jews maintained wood be fulfill by the messiah, or Christ, when he came Jesus concluded his reading his word’s, Jesus said other words  hear I am ready or not Jesus claiming to be the prophesied messiah ,Jesus claim to be messiah
       2.2 Identifying the logical options
       It is unchanging that any one aware with historical data about Jesus have to face up to a decision concerning Him.jesus himself raised the critical questions to those who had witness the evidence   there were many pleases Jesus asked his disciple, who do you say I am though removed the question extremely relevant ,what would you say or what options do you have
3. The critical evidence Jesus’ Resurrection
          The resurrection determines the validity of the the validity of the christen faith. Paul exclaimed if Christ has not been raised, you are faith is worthless 1cor.15:17 and it was the guarantee of the father’s acceptance of the son’s work .the resurrection signifies that the work of the cross was completed and Jesus promised several times during his three and one half year minister that he would rise from the dead. in reality when asked by the Jews  what evidence he would give to confirm himself ,destroy this temple and three days I will raise it up he was, in fact speaking of his own body his own physical resurrection  this would be the central test to determine whether he was genuine. it should be  noted  that all other  founders of the world religions Buddha and Muhammad ,died  people go to their grave sites to pay their respects. Christens   don’t do that however because Jesus is not in the grave he’s alive
    3.1The empty tomb
                  The empty tomb. Moreover Christ was resurrected or someone stole the body. If adversary took the body why did they not simply produce it afterward? The disciple could not have stolen the body because there were sixteen member   roman soldiers and a one-and-half ton stone with a Roman seal covered the entrance to the tomb, the empty to was an obvious proof of the resurrection  
4. The pre-existence of Jesus as God
A thought by john the Baptist
John the Baptist bare the whiteness about the Jesus and cried saying, this was he of whom  I speak .he comes after me is preferred before me for he was before me john 1:15 john 1:27-30 according Luke 1:36john’s birth occurred six month prior to Christ’s  birth, but   john declares that he was before me  a reference to Jesus’ preexistence    
A thought by the apostle john
John also mentioned in his gospel in the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God (jn.1:1) for the life was manifested and we have seen it, and bear witness and show unto you that eternal life which was with the father, and was manifested unto us 1john 1:2 hear the apostle john connects Jesus preexistence to his deity   
Thought by Jesus himself
Jesus himself said “for  I came down from heaven, not to do mine own own will, but the will him that sent me john 6:38,jesus said unto them verily, verily I say unto you before Abraham was, I am john 8:58,And know ,o father ,glorify thou me with thin own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was john 17:15, I am the living bread which came down from the heaven ,if any man eat this bread, he shall live forever and that I will give is my flesh which I will give for the life of the world  john 6:51,61,  all this references tells us about the preexistence of Christ     
     5. The activity of the Divine pre-existence Christ
         5.1He was created the universe  
John 1:3 says all thing were made by him and without him was not any things made that was made john1:3 and Colossians 1:16 also says for by him all things created  are in heavens and that are in earth visible and invisible, whether they be thrones or dominions or the principalities or powers, all things were created by him and for him and Hebrews 1:2,10 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his son, whom he appointed heir of things by whom also made the world and thou the lord in the beginning hast laid the heavens are the works of thin hands    
    5.2 He was controlling the created universe      
Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins sat down on the right hand of the majesty on high Hebrews 1:3  And he is before all things, and by all things consist Heb 1:3 our lord Jesus Christ  not only put all things together, but he continues  to keep all things together
5. The objections of the Jehovah whiteness and Arianism
 5.1 Jehovah’s witnesses
Charles taze Russell. The founder of this movement. Was born on February on 16.1852. At an early age he rejected the doctrine of the eternal torment and at the age of 18 Russell organized a bible class in Pittsburg   and in 1876 they elected him pastor of the group. In 1879 Russell founded Zion’s watch tower which is Known today  the watchtower Announcing  Jehovah’s Kingdom  today’s as the watchtower Announcing Jehovah’s kingdom  they teach  Christ  was created by God  .they base their statement on a misinterpretation  of  col 1:15 And  Rev 3:14 says the Loges was first and only direct creation of Jehovah  He is fully human and inferior to Jehovah   John 14:28the father, son, Holy sprite  Jehovah whiteness never believe in the trinity Jehovah whiteness are  believing  Jesus is not a God but created by God and they  believe his  archangel  but bible says he was not created: he created of all things  Christ cannot be a creature and at the same time the creator
 of all things including angles, when John speaks of Christ in Revelation 3:14 as the beginning of the creation of The God he is saying something which is full agreement with what he has said in the Gospel of john 1:1-3 where he aware Christ was with God in the begging and that he, the loges was God, in the beginning God created heaven and earth.
Christ is God for biblical proofs
He has divine Names isa 9:6, matt 1:23, john 1:1
He did works which only God can perform he forgave sins (mark 2:5-7).
 He raised the dead john 11:43 he create the world col 1:16
 He sustain the world col 1:17 heb 1:2-3 
His miracles attest his glory and his deity john 2:11
 He his worshipped matt 2:11 14:33 28:9 Luke 24:52 heb 1:6 .Phil 2:10-11 Rev 5:8
Devine attributes prove that Jesus Christ  is God .he is omnipotent Matt.28:18 omnipresent Matt 28:20 omniscient  john 21:17 2:25 16:30 acts 1:24
Christ was never Michael the archangel. Christ is so much better then angles. Angle worship Christ the first chapter Hebrews shows Cleary Christ is better than inasmuch as the relationship a son excels a servant in dignity Even The group Arianism is also belive that christ was a creature being col 1:15 they say there was time when christ was not there and they influenced by jehovah witenesss   Even they this group Arianism also believes that Christ was a creator. Being he is the first and highest creating being col 1:15 they say there was time when Christ was not there and they influenced Jehovah witeness    
 6. Jesus Christ is God
           1. Christ is Son of God
Christ is son of God, the key passage on the subject on this subject to be john 5:18 on this explanation the Judeans sought to kill him because he called God his own father making himself equal to God  The statement meaning my father has been working until Know  
 2. Proclamation form heaven  
The instance on which Christ’s divine son ship was proclaimed from heaven  during Jesus baptism time, when Jesus took baptism and immediately coming upcoming up from water he saw the heavens open and the sprite as a dove coming down to him, then a voice came from heaven this is my son ,whom I love with him I am well pleased Mathew 3:17,mark 1:10 Luke 3:21,22  john 1:32-34 2nd instance of his transfiguration  a voice came from the could saying this is my son whom I loved with him I am well pleased listen to him Mathew 17:15,luke 9:35 and again on another occasion of his  public teaching shortly before his  crucifixion Jesus said Now is my soul troubled and what am I saying father save me form this hour but this purpose I have come unto this hour, father glorified they name then there came a voice from heaven  I have glorified it again in I will glorified it John 12:27-39 in this instance the word son is not used but the filial relations hip is clearly  implied in the words of the Jesus addressed to the father
7. The meaning of the begotten son   
 The meaning of the begotten son is the first born or the first begotten son the word firstborn prototakos applied to Christ several times we can see in the bible Colossians 1:18 and Revelation 1:5 this      symbol means that Christ is first one to rise from the dead in immortal form other person raised form dead like Lazarus  were resuscitated to normal were save  a  normal physical life. Christ is the first one to rise on the other side of death, to die no moreanother instance in which this same meaning thought probably in usages in Colossians 1:15 were Christ is said prototokas  of every creature most  the words in Colossians 1:15 are  followed the explanatory  passage because by him everything was created ,things in heavens things upon  earth, visible thing invisible things, thrones, lordships, source of authority ,exercise  of authority, everything created through him for him
8. The meaning of only begotten son
     This designation John1:14-18,3:16-18  1john 4:9 Emphasizes the uniqueness of the God the son in his Divine relation To the God the father, as the father only son, the second of the divine trinity is the only Begotten one a sense That no one else is, not like creaturely son of God, The son’s divine nature is being eternally generated by the father and by this his he eternally possesses the divine nature in common with the father 
      After I research on the particular topic pre-existence of Jesus Christ. I understand Jesus is the God he is created universe he is not created by God. Not only that  many group raise up argued that he is not God but in the bible we can see about his divinity and bible tell us Jesus is The God   

Douglas, New Dictionary, England: Inter-varsity press.1980

 Downey, Murray W.The art of the soul winning, Michigan: Baker book house, 1957
 Erickson, Millard J. Introduction christen doctrine, Michigan Baker Academic, 2001
Boa, Kenneth. Cult’s world Religions and you, Illinois: a division of the publication, 1973 
Christdhas, Abraham. Contemporary religious movements, Banglore: publishing by theological book trust, 2005
Noel, David. The Anchor Bible Dictionary.voulam -4, New York: published by doububledy, 1992
Bierle,Dr Don. Surprised By faith, u.s.a: Global publishing books, 2003

“The study on teachings of Apollinarianism on Humanity of Christ and Theological

Topic: The study on teachings of Apollinarianism on Humanity of Christ and Theological evaluation.
 1.1 Teachings of Apollinarianism
 1.2 Reason for this teachings
 1.3 Problems in his teachings
 3.1 Virgin Birth
 3.2 Essential Nature of Humanity of Christ
 3.3 Scriptural proofs for the Real humanity of Christ

In this research I am going to deal with the topic “The study on teachings of Apollinarianism on Humanity of Christ and Theological evaluation” which deals with the teachings of Apollinarianism against Humanity of Christ, which also contradict to Bible and to whole doctrine of Christology. In this paper I also show the reasons for this teachings and problems with these teachings. And I also prove that Jesus had true complete human nature and divine nature in one person on the basis of Biblical proofs.
1. Apollinarianism
Early in the life of the church many heresies evolved in careful understanding of humanity of Christ, such as Docetism and Apollinarianism. Docetism is a denial of the reality of humanity of Christ. Apollinarianism, by contrast is a truncation (condensation) of Jesus’ humanity. Jesus took human form but not all natures or incomplete.
1.1 Teachings of Apollinarianism
Apollinarius was bishop of Laodicea from about 370 to 392 A.D. Apollinarius was a close friend and associate of Athanasius, and had been one of the leading champions of orthodox Christology against Arianism at the Council of Nicea. However, the reaction against heresy became an overreaction. Apollinarius was very concerned to maintain the unity of the Son, Jesus Christ. Apollinarius reasoned that if Jesus had two complete natures, he must have had a human “nous” (soul, mind, reason) as well as a divine “nous”. Apollinarius thought this duality was absurd or meaningless. So, Apollinarius taught that Christ had a true body and soul but the spirit in man was replaced in Christ by the divine pre-existent logos. The logos as the divine actively dominated the passive element than the body and soul, in the person of Christ. So Jesus had a human body and a human ‘soul’ but not a human ‘spirit’. He also held that Christ had a body, but that the body was somehow so sublimated as to be just as a human body. Apollinaris reduced the human nature of Christ of something less than human.
1.2 Reasons for this teachings
Apollinaris taught that the divine pre-existent Logos took the place of the ‘spirit’ in the man Jesus, so Jesus had a human body and a human ‘soul’ but not a human ‘spirit’. The reasons for this teachings that first, Apollinaris believed the spirit was the seat of sin; therefore, to remove any possibility of sin from Christ, Apollinaris felt he had to deny the humanity of Jesus Spirit. 
Second reason is that, Apollinarius felt that in one being, Christ, two complete and contrasting natures could not exist, namely, the divine, eternal, unchangeable, and perfect, and the human, temporal, corruptible, finite and imperfect. Along with many others, he held each human being to be to be composed of body, soul, and mind or reason, the last being what distinguishes man from the lower animals. If the two natures were both in Jesus, the latter would really have in him two beings. Moreover, the human side of Jesus might sin, much as the extreme Arians declared. Mainly Apollinaris taught that if Jesus has the complete human nature then he might sin because human nature is sin. So he denied the complete human nature of Christ.
1.3 Problems in his teachings:
The problem with Apollinaris’s view was that while solving the deity of Christ, he denied the genuine humanity of Christ. In Apollinaris’s teaching Jesus was less than fully human. He stressed the deity of Christ but minimized His true manhood, which makes man’s salvation impossible. But these views of Apollinaris were rejected by the leaders of the church, who realized that it was not just or human body that needed salvation and needed to be represented by Christ in his redemptive work, but our human minds and spirits, which needs Christ had to be fully and truly man if he was to save us (Heb 2:17). So Apollinarianism was rejected by several church councils, from the Council of Alexandria in A.D 362 to the Council of Constantinople in A.D. 381.
2. Meaning and Importance of Humanity of Christ:
The doctrine of the humanity of Christ is equally important as the doctrine of the deity of Christ. Jesus had to be a man if He was to represent or to save fallen humanity. There is a basic problem of spiritual and moral gap between God and us, created human sin. We are unable to counter our sin by our own moral effort, to elevate ourselves to the level of God. If we are to have fellowship with God, we have to be united with him in some other way. This has been accomplished by the incarnation, in which deity and humanity were united in one person. If, Jesus was not really one of us, humanity has not been united with deity, and we cannot be saved. Then the death on the cross was an illusion and he cannot affect the kind of intercession that a priest must make on behalf of those whom he represents. Then experiencing all of the temptations and trials are not real and he cannot understand and empathize with us in our struggles as humans.
3. Humanity of Christ
Humanity of Christ deals mainly with Virgin birth of Christ, His essential human natures and emotions and also His sinlessness.
3.1 Virgin Birth of Jesus
When we speak of the humanity of Christ it is appropriate to begin with a consideration of the virgin birth of Christ. Scripture clearly asserts that Jesus was conceived in the womb of his mother Mary by a miraculous work of the Holy Spirit and without human father (Matt 1:18, Luke 1:35; 3:23, Isaiah 7:14). The doctrinal importance of the virgin birth is seen in at least three areas. It shows that salvation ultimately must come from the Lord, as God had promised that the “seed” of the woman will destroy serpent (Gen 3:15). The virgin birth of Christ is an unmistakable reminder that salvation can never come through human effort, but must be the work of God himself. The virgin birth made possible the uniting of full deity and full humanity in one person. There are no other ways to unite Jesus two natures instead virgin birth. The virgin birth also makes possible Christ’s true humanity without inherited sin “therefore the child to be born will be called holy” (Luke 1:35). By this Jesus was fully human yet did not share inherited sin from Adam. Thus virgin birth shows unity of both fully human and fully deity of Jesus.  .
3.2 Essential Nature of Humanity of Christ
Jesus had a true body of Flesh and Blood: The fact that Jesus had a human body just like our human bodies is seen in many passages of Scripture. He was born just as all human babies are born (Luke 2:7). He grew through childhood to adulthood just as other children grow. (Luke 2:40). Later in his life He was recognizable as a Jew (John 4:9) and as the carpenter who had brothers and sisters (Matt 13:55). Jesus became was “tired” just as we do. (John 4:6). He became thirsty, “I thirst” (John 19:28). After he had fasted for forty days in the wilderness, Jesus was “hungry” (Matt. 4:2) and “weak” (Matt 4:11). He experienced the pain of the scourging (John 19:1), the horror of crucifixion (John 19:18), and on the cross he thirsted as man (John 19:28). These elements emphasis His true humanity.
Jesus Had a Normal development: Luke 2:52 describes Jesus’ development in four areas: mental, physical, spiritual and social. He continued to develop in His knowledge to things, He grew in His physical body, He developed in His spiritual awareness, and He developed in His social relationships with others (Heb 5:8).
Jesus has a Human Soul and Spirit: Jesus was a complete human being, having a body, soul, and spirit (Luke 23:49, Mk 2:8; 8:12, John 13:21). Before the cross, Jesus was troubled in His soul at the expectation of the cross (John 12:27). In John 11:33 describes that Jesus had wept with sorrow and deeply moved in spirit at the death of Lazarus. He ultimately died and He gave up His spirit (John 19:30).
He had Human names:
Jesus was called as the “son of David”, indicating He was a descendant of King David (Matt 1:1). He was also called Jesus (Matt 1:21), the equivalent of the Old Testament name Joshua which means “Yahweh saves”. He was referred to as a “Man” (Matt 4:23-25, Matt: 13:55). Paul indicated a future day when the world would be judged by a “Man” (Acts 17:31).
3.3 Scriptural proofs for the Real humanity of Christ
Scripture clearly affirms the real humanity of Christ in different places. Jesus had a human birth (Matt 1:18-23; 2:11; Luke 1:30-33; Gal 4:4, Rom 1:3, Matt 1:1, Rom 9:5, Heb 7:14). He had human names and titles like Jesus (Matt 1:21-23), Son of David (Matt 1:1; 9:27, 12:23, 20:30), the Mediator (1 Tim 2:5). He had human nature having spirit, soul and body (1Thess 5:23, Heb 4:12). He had human emotions like us (John 4:6, John 4:7, 19:28, Matt 8:24). He suffered human death by laying on Himself all or sins and its wages that is death (1 Peter 2:24, Gen 2:17, Heb 9:27, Luke 23:33). He was raised from the dead and still possesses that virgin-born, crucified, buried physical body (Luke 24:39).Scripture clearly affirms that Jesus has human body with all human natures, emotions, qualities but except sin.
Apollinaris taught that Jesus had a human body and a human ‘soul’ but not a human ‘spirit’, which was replaced by the divine pre-existent Logos in the man Jesus. He taught this teaching because Jesus was sinless or Holy and he cannot take full human nature which is sinful, and he also believed that the two natures Divine (Holy) and human (Unholy) cannot be united. He more focused or concerned about the Divine nature of Jesus denying the virgin birth of Jesus and his sinlessness. Bible clearly affirms that Jesus was born by virgin birth which makes Jesus sinless and also union of both human and divine natures in Jesus (Matt 1:18-23; 2:11; Luke 1:30-33; Gal 4:4). Bible also affirms that Jesus had human natures (1Thess 5:23, Heb 4:12), human body (Rom 1:3, Matt 1:1, Rom 9:5, Heb 7:14), human development (Luke 1:52), human emotions (John 4:6, John 4:7, 19:28, Matt 8:24), human mind (Luke 1:26), human spirit (Jn 11:33), human death but without sinless (Luke 1:35, Mark 1:24, Lk 4:34, Matt 3:15-17, 11 Corinth 5:21, Heb 4:15). Apollinarius teaching was correct in saying Jesus is divine but his teachings was totally contradict to Bible that Jesus was not human. If Jesus was not fully human and fully divine then salvation is impossible to us and there is no use of Christ death or atonement for us. So I evaluate that the teachings of Apollinarius are contradict according to Bible which makes salvation impossible.
From this research I want to conclude that Jesus is fully human and fully divine in one person with all human natures, characters and, all divine attributes, natures and characters but without sin. Jesus is not incomplete but fully complete with both natures human and divine. Apollinarius tried to solve the problems but in reaction he created a big problem by denying Jesus humanity. But Bible clearly affirms that Jesus is fully human and fully divine yet without sinless. Only because of His sinlessness and union of both natures we all are saved by His death. Even though many heresies disagree but the standard and unchangeable truth is Jesus is both divine and human.  
Cairns, Earle E. Christianity through the Centuries. Grand Rapids:  Zondervan, 1996.
Conner, Kevin J. The foundations of Christian Doctrine. England: Sovereign World      International, 1980.
Erickson, Millard J. Introducing Christian Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.
Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Hyderabad: Authentic, 2008.
Gruden, Wayne. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Andhra Pradesh:    Secunderabad, 2003.
Latourette, Kenneth Scott.  A History of Christianity. New York: Haper & Brothers Publishers,  1953.

Personhood of the Holy Spirit

Topic: Personhood of the Holy Spirit
1. Importance of the Doctrine of Holy Spirit
2. Difficulties in understanding the Holy Spirit
3. Nature of the Holy Spirit
3.1 The deity of the Holy Spirit
3.2 The personality of Holy Spirit
4. Implications of the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit

In this Research Paper I have made an attempt to emphasize on the Personhood of the Holy Spirit and I am going to talk about the person of the Holy Spirit i.e. Holy Spirit is a person. He is a Spirit as well as a person.
1. Importance of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit
There are several reasons why the study of the Holy Spirit is of special significance for us. Holy Spirit is the point at which the Trinity becomes personal to the believer. Holy Spirit is active within the lives of believers; he is resident within us. He is the particular person of the trinity through whom the entire Triune Godhead currently works in us.
Second reason why the study of the Holy Spirit is important is that we live in the period in which the Holy Spirit’s work is more prominent than that of the other members of the trinity. The father’s work was the most conspicuous within the Old Testament period, as was the Son’s within the period covered by the Gospels and up to the ascension. Holy Spirit has occupied the centre of the stage from the time of Pentecost on i.e. the period covered by the Book of Acts and the epistles, and the ensuring periods of Church History.
The third reason for the importance of the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit is that current culture stresses the experimental, and it is primarily through the Holy Spirit’s work that we feel God’s presence within and the Christian life is given a special tangibility.
2. Difficulties in understanding the Holy Spirit
We have less explicit revelation in the Bible regarding the Holy Spirit than about either father or the son. This is due in part to the fact that a large share of the Holy Spirit’s ministry is to declare and glorify the son. Virtually the only extended treatment is Jesus’ discourse in John 14-16.
A further problem is the lack of concrete imagery. God the father is understood fairly well because the figure of a father is familiar to practically everyone. The son is not hard to conceptualize. For he actually appeared in human form and was observed and reported on.
3. Nature of the Holy Spirit
3.1 Deity of the Holy Spirit
The deity of the Holy Spirit is inextricably bound up with the doctrine of the trinity. A denial of one is a denial of the other. Controversially, belief in the Trinity necessities a belief in the deity of the Holy Spirit.
a. Divine titles of the Sprit
The title Spirit of God evidences his relationship to the father and the son and also affirms his deity. 1 Cor 2;11 clearly shows that as man and his spirit make one and the same being, so God and his spirit are only one. In most instances when the term spirit of God is used, it is a reference to the Holy Spirit rather than the father; similarly, when the term Spirit of Christ is used it is usually a reference to the Holy Spirit. In Rom 8:9 and Rom 8:13-14 it is further seen that “Spirit” and “Spirit of God” are synonyms and a reference to the third person of the Trinity.
b. Divine Attributes of the Spirit
Omniscience: The Spirit of man knows the things pertaining to humanity; the Holy Spirit knows about God. The Holy Spirit searches the depths of God (I Cor 2:10).
Omnipotence: The omnipotence of the Holy Spirit is seen in creation. In Gen 1:2 the Holy Spirit is seem hovering over creation as a hen over its young; the Holy Spirit gave life to creation.
Omnipresence: David says in Psm 139 that he cannot flee from the presence of the Holy Spirit. The omnipresence is also seen in John 14:17 where Christ taught the disciples that the Spirit would indwell them all, an affirmation of the Spirit’s omnipresence.
Eternity: The Holy Spirit is called the Eternal Spirit in this passage. Through the Eternal Spirit Christ offered Himself without blemish to God? Just as the Holy Spirit had a part in the birth Christ (Luke 1:35), in the same way He also had a part in the death of Christ.
Holiness: One important aspect of deity is that God is holy, entirely set apart and separated from sin and sinners. The most common name for the Spirit is Holy Spirit, indicating the third person of the Trinity also possesses this transcendent attribute of deity.
Love: The Holy Spirit is love and produces love in the child of God. If He did not possess love as a primary attribute He could not produce love in the believer (Gal 5:22).
Truth: The Holy Spirit is termed the “Spirit of truth” in John 14:17 and 15:26. Just as Christ was the truth (John 14:6) so the Spirit is the truth and leads people into the truth through the Scriptures.
c. Divine Works of the Spirit
Creation (Gen. 1:2). Several Scripture passages affirm that the Holy Spirit was involved in the work of creation. Genesis 1:2 indicates that the Spirit brooded over creation, bringing it to life. In Psalm 104:24–26 the psalmist describes the creation, and in v. 30 he indicates how God created: “Thou dost send forth Thy Spirit, they are created.” Job 26:13 expands the creation of God to the heavens; the Holy Spirit created not only the earth but also the heavens.
Generating Christ (Matt. 1:20). The overshadowing of Mary by the Holy Spirit assured a sinless humanity of Christ. Christ in His deity is eternal, but the Holy Spirit begat the sinless human nature of Christ. He brought the humanity of Christ into being. It is too often assumed that Mary the mother of Christ contributed His humanity and that the Holy Spirit contributed His deity; but a moment’s reflection would disclose that the deity of Christ was His own from all eternity and therefore was not originated at the time of His birth. He became incarnate when His eternal Person took on the human form.The Spirit caused the humanity of Christ to originate and that is His act of generation.
Inspiration of Scripture (2 Peter 1:21). There is an analogy between the Holy Spirit’s generating Christ’s humanity and the Spirit’s superintending the writers of Scripture; just as the Holy Spirit overshadowed Mary, guaranteeing the sinlessness of Christ’s humanity, so the Holy Spirit superintended the human writers to guarantee an inerrant Scripture. By analogy, a denial of one necessitates a denial of the other. The writers of Scripture were carried along by the Holy Spirit, guaranteeing the inspiration of the books of Scripture. The Spirit’s work in inspiration is analogous to the Father’s work (cf. 2 Tim. 3:16).
Regeneration (Titus 3:5). To regenerate means to give life. The Holy Spirit causes the new birth; He is its author. Regeneration by the Holy Spirit is the spiritual counterpart of human reproduction in the physical realm. Human generation produces human life; spiritual regeneration produces spiritual life. The Holy Spirit produces the new birth, but He does it through the instrumentality of the Word of God (1 Peter 1:23). The same truth is taught in John 3:6 where Jesus indicates the Holy Spirit produces the new birth in that He regenerates the person.
Intercession (Rom. 8:26). Christ is an intercessor for believers, but so is the Holy Spirit.
Sanctification (2 Thess. 2:13). There are three aspects of sanctification, the first being positional: “the setting apart which occurs when by the Holy Spirit the one who believes is joined unto Christ and thus comes to be in Christ.”19 (Cf. 1 Cor. 1:30; Heb. 10:14–15; 1 Pet. 1:2.)
Helping saints (John 14:16). In this text Jesus promised the disciples “another Helper.” Helper is the Greek word parakleton which comes from two words, “alongside” and “called,” hence, “one called alongside to help.” In 1 John 2:1 the Lord Jesus is called the sinning saint’s Paraclete (“Advocate” in most versions). The Holy Spirit is “another of the same kind” as Christ, a Helper who is called alongside to help the believer. The Holy Spirit’s work as the believer’s Paraclete (Helper) demands His deity since His work is the same as Christ’s in His role as Paraclete.
It becomes apparent that the works of the Holy Spirit indicate His deity—His oneness within the Godhead, together with the Father and the Son

3.2 The Personality of the Holy Spirit
The Holy Spirit is a person, and not a mere influence or operation. When Christ promised his coming as another Comforter, the language clearly refers to him as a person: "I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter that he may abide with you.”The Comforter whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you.
1. His identity confirms his Personality:
Personality may be defined as possessing intellect, emotions and will; then by demonstrating that the Holy Spirit has intellect, emotions, and will it will be shown that he is a person and has personality. The Holy Spirit is sometimes referred to as “it” or a “thing” or simply an influence.
2. His attributes confirm his Personality:
Intellect: The Holy Spirit has intellect in as much as “the Spirit searches all things”, (1 Cor 2:10). The word “search” means to examine or investigate a matter. The Holy Spirit examines the depths of God and reveals them to believers.
Knowledge: No human being has an awareness or knowledge of the thoughts of God, but the Holy Spirit understands the mind of God (1 Cor 2:11).
Mind: Even as the Holy Spirit Knows the Father, so the Father knows the mind of the Spirit (Rom 8:27). The word mind means “way of thinking, mind (set); aim’ aspiration, striving and clearly indicates that the Holy Spirit has intellect.
Emotions: Emotions or sensibility means to have feelings, to have awareness and an ability to respond to something.
Will: The Holy Spirit has a will, indicating He has the power of sovereign choice and decision. The Holy Spirit distributes spiritual gifts just as He wills.6 The phrase “He wills” (Gk. bouletai) refers to “decisions of the will after previous deliberation.”7 The idea of sovereign choice is evident in this statement. By way of analogy, the same word “will” is used to describe the will of God the Father (James 1:18). Just as the Father has a will, so the Holy Spirit has a will. In Acts 16:6 the Holy Spirit exercised His will in forbidding Paul to preach in Asia and redirecting Paul to ministry in Europe. These Scripture passages clearly teach that the Holy Spirit has intellect, emotion, and will as part of a genuine personality.
3. His Works Confirms his Personality
The Holy Spirit performs works that are similar to the works of the Father and the Son. These works confirm the personality of the Holy Spirit.
a. The Spirit teaches. Before Jesus departed from the disciples He encouraged them by telling them He would send them “another Helper” (John 14:16). “Another” stresses that the Holy Spirit will be a Helper of the same kind as Christ.8 Just as Jesus had taught the disciples (Matt. 5:2; John 8:2), so the Holy Spirit would teach them (John 14:26). The Holy Spirit would perform and carry on the same kind of teaching ministry as Christ did. The Holy Spirit would cause them to remember the things Christ had taught them earlier; the Spirit would confirm Christ’s teaching.
b. The Spirit testifies. Jesus promised the disciples that the Holy Spirit “will bear witness of me” (John 15:26). The word “bear witness” means to testify concerning someone. The Holy Spirit would testify concerning the teaching of Christ that He had come forth from the Father and had spoken the truth of God. The same word is used of the disciples’ testifying concerning Christ in John 15:27. As the disciples would bear witness concerning Christ so also would the Holy Spirit bear witness of Christ.
c. The Spirit guides. Jesus declared that when the Holy Spirit would come He would guide them into all the truth (John 16:13). The picture is that of a guide or escort leading a traveller into territory unfamiliar to the traveller, but familiar to the guide.
d. The Spirit convicts. John 16:8 declares the future ministry of the Spirit would be to “convict the world.” “Convict” (Gk. elegcho) means to “convince someone of something; point something out to someone.”9 The Holy Spirit acts as a divine prosecutor in convicting the world concerning sin, righteousness, and judgement.
e. The Spirit regenerates. The one who experiences the new birth has been born of the Holy Spirit; He has been regenerated by the Spirit. Just as the Son of God gives life to believers (John 5:21), so the Holy Spirit regenerates people (cf. Ezek. 36:25–27; Titus 3:5).
f. The Spirit intercedes. In the time of a believer’s weakness, the Holy Spirit takes the believer’s groaning and intercedes on his behalf (Rom. 8:26). The Father understands the intercession of the Spirit and answers the prayer and works all things together for good in the believer’s life because the Spirit has interceded for the child of God (Rom. 8:28). The same word regarding intercession is used of Christ in His intercessory work (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25). Just as Christ intercedes on behalf of believers, so the Spirit also intercedes for them. One is again reminded: an inanimate entity could not intercede for others; a person intercedes.
g. The Spirit commands. In Acts 13:2 the Holy Spirit commanded that Paul and Barnabas be set apart for missionary work; Acts 13:4 add that the two men were sent out by the Holy Spirit. In Acts 16:6 the Holy Spirit prohibited Paul and Silas from preaching in Asia; in Acts 8:29 the Holy Spirit directed Philip to speak to the Ethiopian eunuch.
4. Implications of the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit:
The doctrine of the trinity depends upon the reality of the “third Person” called the “Holy Spirit” to complete a supposed multi-personal Godhead. Without such a separate person who is “co-eternal” and “co-equal” with the father and the son, the “Triune” God disintegrates.
1. God is said to have a throne (1 kings 22:19), inhabit heaven as his dwelling place. So how can he be said to have a throne and a dwelling place and yet be uncontainable? Ps. 139:7 indicates that God’s Spirit and his presence can be equivalent terms. God is therefore omnipresent by his spirit, which is not a separate person.
2. Exodus 23:20-22 mentions the Angel of God’s presence that would go before Israel in the wilderness. “Person” God has permitted angels to speak as if they were God himself, and even to use us personal name’ YAHWEH. What is sometimes attributed to Jesus or to the “Holy Spirit” in the Old Testament is better explained by this principle of God manifesting himself by means of an angelic messenger who speaks for him in the first person and manifests his glory. 
From this research I came to know about the person of the Holy Spirit, that he is a person. He is a person as well as Spirit. He has the power to do everything. He lives inside of us and guides us in every way. Holy Spirit is the most important person in the Trinity.
From this paper I would like to conclude that Holy Spirit is a Person as well as Spirit. He is the sustainer of our life and also a guider who guides us in every way we go. Holy Spirit is a very important aspect of our life as he lives inside of us and works and gives us hope and knowledge and shows us the right path in which we have to walk. He is the source of conviction for sin, righteousness and judgement. After we receive salvation the spirit regenerates us to a new level and gives hope when we are in hopeless situation. He leads us when we lose our way and also the spirit testifies on our behalf.
Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology. Leicester: Inter – Varsity Press, 1994.
Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology. Michigan: Grand Rapids, 1949.
Enns, Paul. The Moody Handbook of Theology. Chicago: Moody Press, 1989.

Importance of humanity of Jesus Christ

TOPIC: The importance of humanity of Jesus Christ and evaluating the biblical counterfeit against the heresies of Jesus humanity.
1. Introduction
2. Early heresies regarding humanity of Jesus
    2.1. Doceitism
    2.2. Appolianarism
3. Biblical evidences of Jesus humanity
    3.1. Virgin birth
    3.2. Human weakness and limitations
         a. Jesus had a human body
         b. Jesus had a human soul and emotions
4. The importance of the humanity of Christ
5. The necessity of Jesus manhood
6. Evaluation
1. Introduction
The Humanity of Jesus an issue that started from the beginning of the Christian Church and it even continues today. So discussion in the humanity of Jesus is ever important.
Christ’s incarnation as human was not avoidable as far as the atonement is concerned. To reconcile fallen humanity with God an incarnation who was a perfect human was needed. Thus Jesus came to the world as word manifested as flesh. The Apostle assigns as the reason why Christ assumed our nature and not the nature of angels that He came to redeem us. (Hebrews 2: 14-16.) It was necessary that He should be made under the law which we had broken; that He should fulfil all righteousness; that He should suffer and die; that He should be able to sympathize in all the infirmities of his people, and that He should be united to them in a common nature. He who and those who are sanctified are and must be of one nature. Therefore as the children were partakers of flesh and blood, He also took part of the same. (Hebrews 2: 11-14.)
In this paper I am explaining the humanity of Jesus giving the Biblical evidences, importance and necessity of Jesus’ humanity.
2. Early heresies regarding humanity of Jesus
The biblical teaching about the full deity and full humanity of Christ is so extensive that both have been believed from the earliest times in the history of the church. But a clear understanding of how full deity and full humanity could be combined together in one person was formulated only gradually in the church and was formulated in the Chalcedonian creed in A.D. 451. Before that point, several heretical views of the person of Christ were proposed and then rejected. Two such heresies are discussed below:
    2.1. Doceitism
The word docetism comes from the Greek verb “dokeo”  “to seem, to appear to be.” Any theological position that says that Jesus was not really a man, but only appeared to be a man, is called a “docetic” position. Behind Docetism is an assumption that the material creation is inherently evil, and therefore the Son of God could not have been united to a true human nature. No prominent church leader ever advocated Docetism, but it was a troublesome heresy that had various supporters in the first four centuries of the church.
    2.2. Appolianarism
Apollinarism, who became bishop in Laodicea about A.D. 361, taught that the one person of Christ had a human body but not a human mind or spirit, and that the mind and spirit of Christ were from the divine nature of the Son of God. But the views of Apollinarism were rejected by the leaders of the church at that time, who realized that it was not just our human body that needed salvation and needed to be represented by Christ in his redemptive work, but our human minds and spirits as well: Christ had to be fully and truly man if he was to save us (Heb. 2:17). Apollinarianism was rejected by several church councils, from the
Council of Alexandria in A.D. 362 to the Council of Constantinople in A.D. 381.
3. Biblical evidences of Humanity of Christ
Jesus was born as human to redeem the humanity. We may summarize the biblical teaching about the person of Christ as follows: Jesus Christ was fully God and fully man in one person, and will be so forever. The biblical evidences for Jesus’ humanity are as follows:
    3.1. Virgin birth
Scripture clearly asserts that Jesus was conceived in the womb of his mother Mary by a miraculous work of the Holy Spirit and without a human father.
“Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had
been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child of the Holy Spirit” (Matt. 1:18)
The doctrinal importance of the virgin birth is seen in at least three areas.
1. It shows that salvation ultimately must come from the Lord. Just as God had promised that the “seed” of the woman (Gen. 3:15) would ultimately destroy the serpent, so God brought it about by his own power, not through mere human effort.
2. The virgin birth made possible the uniting of full deity and full humanity in one person. This was the means God used to send his Son (John 3:16; Gal. 4:4) into the world as a man. If we think for a moment of other possible ways in which Christ might have come to the earth, none of them would so clearly unite humanity and deity in one person. Christ, so that his full humanity would be evident to us from the fact of his ordinary human birth from a human mother, and his full deity would be evident from the fact of his conception in Mary’s womb by the powerful work of the Holy Spirit.
3. The virgin birth also makes possible Christ’s true humanity without inherited sin. As we noted in chapter, all human beings have inherited legal guilt and a corrupt moral nature from their first father, Adam. But the fact that Jesus did not have a human father means that the line of descent from Adam is partially interrupted. Jesus did not descend from Adam in exactly the same way in which every other human being has descended from Adam. And this helps us to understand why the legal guilt and moral corruption that belongs to all other human beings did not belong to Christ.
    3.2. Human weakness and limitations
              3.2.1 Jesus had a human body
The body of Jesus “was like the bodies of other men except for those qualities which have resulted from human sin and failure.” Luke 1–2 describes Mary’s pregnancy and her giving birth to the child Jesus, affirming the Saviour’s true humanity. Ultimately, He suffered greatly in His human body: He experienced the pain of the scourging (John 19:1), the horror of crucifixion (John 19:18), and on the cross He thirsted as a man (John 19:28). These elements emphasize His true humanity.
When Jesus had fasted in the wilderness He became hungry (Matt. 4:2); when He and the disciples walked through Samaria He became tired and stopped at the well to rest (John 4:6); He was thirsty from the day’s journey in the heat (John 4:7).
3.2.2 Jesus had a human soul and emotions.
Jesus was a complete human being, having a body, soul, and spirit. Prior to the cross, Jesus was troubled in His soul at the anticipation of the cross (John 12:27). There was a self-consciousness that He was to bear the sins of the world, and Jesus was overwhelmed at the prospect. John 11:33 describes in strongest terms the emotion that Jesus felt in His human spirit at the death of His friend Lazarus. At the prospect of His impending crucifixion Jesus was troubled in His human spirit (John 13:21); when He ultimately died He gave up His spirit (John 19:30).

4. The importance of the humanity of Christ.
Jesus had to be a man if He was to represent fallen humanity. First John was written to dispel the doctrinal error that denies the true humanity of Christ (cf. 1 John 4:2). If Jesus was not a real man, then the death on the cross was an illusion; He had to be a real man to die for humanity. The Scriptures teach the true humanity of Jesus. However, they also show that He did not possess man’s sinful, fallen nature (1 John 3:5).
5. The Necessity of Jesus manhood
The demands of Christ’s work as mediator required that Christ should be proper and very man. Mankind had fallen, and was conscience struck, hostile, and fearful towards God. Hence it was desirable that the Daysman should appear in his nature as his brother in order to encourage confidence, to allure to a familiar approach, and quiet guilty fears. To such a being as sinful man, personal intercourse with God would have been intolerably dreadful, (Gen. 3:8; Ex. 20:19) and even an angel would have appeared too terrible to his fears.
 Again, the Bible assures us that one object gained by the incarnation of Christ was fuller assurance of His sympathy, by His experimental acquaintance with all the woes of our fallen condition (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15 to 5:2). The experience of every Christian under trial of affliction testifies to the strength of this reasoning by the consolation which Christ’s true humanity gives Him. It is very true that the Son, as omniscient God, can and does figure to Hi accurate as experience itself, but His having experienced them in human nature enables our weak faith to grasp the consolation better.
Another purpose of God, in clothing our Redeemer with human nature, was to leave us a perfect human example. The importance and efficacy of teaching by example, need not be unfolded here (See 1 Pet. 2:21; Heb. 12:2).
 In the fourth place, Christ’s incarnation was necessary, in order to establish a proper basis for that legal union between Him and His elect, which should make Him bearer of their imputed guilt, and them partakers of His imputed righteousness and of His exaltation (See 1 Cor. 15:21). It was necessary that man’s sin should be punished in the nature of man, in order to render the substitution more natural and proper (Rom. 8:3). Had the deity been united with some angelic, or other creature, the imputation of man’s sin to that Person, and its punishment in that foreign nature would have appeared less reasonable (See Heb. 2:14–16). So, likewise, the obedience rendered in another nature than man’s, would not have been so reasonable a ground for raising man’s race to a share in the Mediator’s blessedness.
And this leads us to add, last, that a created eve been so appropriate as man’s. And none but a creature could come under law, assume a subject position, and work out an active righteousness. God is above law, being Himself the great law giver. For the other vicarious work, suffering a penalty, not only a created, but a corporeal nature is necessary. Angels cannot feel bodily death, and brutes could not experience spiritual, but both are parts of the Heb. 10:5, 9:22.
7. Evaluation
God gave his Son for the redemption of man. He came into the world to save his people from their sins; to seek and save those who are lost. He took part in flesh and blood in order, by death, to destroy him who had the power of death, that is the devil, and to deliver those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. He died the just for the unjust that He might bring us near to God.
The intention of coming of the Son of God was to reconcile us unto God, and as reconciliation of parties at variance is a work of mediation, Christ is called our mediator. But where reconciliation involves the necessity of satisfaction for sin as committed against God, and then he only is a mediator who makes atonement for sin. As this was done, and could be done by Christ alone, it follows that He only is the mediator between God and man. To us, therefore, there is one mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus. (1 Timothy2:5)
Thus to reconcile man and God, Son of God has to come as a man, not mere in appearance of man but fully as man. The blessings of Salvation and peace with God happened because of the Jesus’ incarnation as man which also gave as eternal privileges before God.
8. Conclusion
I have explained in the paper about the biblical evidences on Jesus’ humanity, the necessity and importance which were the turning point in the history and also considering the salvation of Humanity. I believe this paper almost succeeded in explaining the human incarnation of Jesus Christ giving the biblical evidences.

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Culver, Duncen. Systematic Theology. Ross-shire: Geanies House, 2005.
Enns, Paul Moody handbook of Theology. Michigan: Moody Publishers1989.
Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology. Secunderabad: OM Books,2005. 

Important of Jesus Death and Misinterpretation

Important of Jesus Death and Misinterpretation     
Importance of the Death of Christ
Foretold in the Old Testament
Prominent in the New Testament
Prophetic Witness
Messianic Witness
Historical Witness
Fulfillment of the Divine Plan
Misinterpretation of Christ Death
The Martyr theory
The Accident theory
The Government theory

In this paper, I am going to deal with important Jesus death and misinterpretation. Moreover, this topic it talk about the important of Jesus death, and how the Old Testament prophesized about the death of Christ. How the death of Christ is prominent in New Testament and how he fulfill the promise prophecy of Old Testament in the New Testament. Lastly, it talks about how the people misinterpreted the death of Jesus Christ.
Importance of the Death of Christ:
           The importance of Christ's was to Secure forgiveness for other is is taught in directly in the scripture "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many remission of sins". "The son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many," Mark 10: 15. His suffering is not for himself but for the other, - "Weep not for me, but weep for you and for the children," Luke 23: 28. Moreover, the rending of the veil of the temple, which symbolized that the way into the presence of God had been open for all men, occurred at His death.
                              The same teaching concerning the death of Christ is found throughout the New Testament. The Apostle Paul, for instance, pointedly conscious that he had received the cleansing which comes through faith in Christ, places His atoning death at the very heart of his theological system. "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us," Galatians 3: 13. Peter declared, "Christ also suffered for our sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that He might bring us to God and again that He "bare our sins in His body upon the tree. John says, "The blood of Jesus Christ cleans is from all sin, and "He is the propitiation for our sins." It may be true that there is some ethical value in many other teaching, but only in Christianity do we have redeemed from sin, and this accomplished through the substitute death of Christ.                                                        
Foretold in the Old Testaments:

             The death of Christ is the subject of many types and prophecies in the Old Testament. We can trace a scarlet cord through the whole Bible. The sacrifice of Able in Genesis, Abraham sacrifices a ram on mount Moriah. The sacrifice of the patriarchs (Genesis 8: 20, 12: 8, 26: 35) and the offering in the day of Joshua and Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:3-6) and Nehemiah (Neh. 10: 32). All these offering are one of the greatest offering made by the Christ. There are prophecies that point forward to the death of Christ. The Psalms prophesy the betrayal of Christ, the crucifixion and the attendant events and the resurrection. Isaiah write, "He was pierced through for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities" (Isaiah: 53:5). Daniel indicated that after sixty-nine week Messiah would cut off and have nothing (9: 26). Zechariah foretells the selling of Christ for thirty pieces of silver coin and the investment of that sum in a potter's field (Zechariah 11:12, Matthew 26: 15, 27:9) and predicts the striking of the shepherd (Zechariah 13:7), and the opening of a foundation for sin an impurity (Zechariah 13: 1). Thus, it is clear that the death of Christ is an important part of the teaching of the Old Testament. The sufferings of the Christ were one of the great subjects in the Old Testament, which prophets have inquired and searched diligently. "Of which salvation the prophets inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come  unto you; searching what or what manner of time the spirit of Christ which was in them was signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow." When Moses and Elijah appeared with Christ on the mount of transfiguration the subject, they of which they spoke was the death of the savior. 
Prominent in the New Testament:
              The last week of our lord's earthly life occupied about one-fifth of the narrative in the four gospels. Similarly, the Epistles is filled with reference to this historic event. Manifestly, the death and the resurrection of Jesus were esteem of supreme important by the Holy Spirit, the author of scripture.There are of number theories concerning the significance death of Christ's. The emphasis of the New Testament, However is that Christ died a substitutionary death on behalf of sinners. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us. By dying on the Roman cross, Christ died as a substitute for all humanity (II Corinthian. 5: 21; 1 Peter 3: 18). This doctrine is important inasmuch as the righteous demand of a Holy God were complete through Christ's complete payment for sin. It is on this basis that God may declared believing sinners righteous and except them into fellowship without any compromise on His part. All the believer's sins are place on Christ, who completely atoned for them and paid for them through his death.
 Among the many doctrines Christ enunciated, there was the doctrine of His death. While all man is born to live, yet enter the world under the sentence of death. "It is appointed unto man once to die"(Hebrew 9: 28). The manner of our Lord's death was unique that He deliberately laid down His life in obedience to the Father (John 10: 18). While it is necessary for the atonement, our Lord's physical death was not the dreadful experience of divine wrath as was His spiritual death. Being in complete fellowship with the father, Jesus voluntarily laid down His physical life to gain power over death, Satan, and the realm of death by his resurrection (Acts 2: 23-32; Hebrew 2: 14; Revelation 1: 18). While His death satisfied the demand of divine holiness and justice, His resurrection made His atoning work effective and broke the power of the enemy that held humankind in its grip.
  Prophetic Witness:
 Old Testament passages, which in so many words say something directly about Jesus' death, are few. Though not quoted in the New Testament as prediction, Isaiah 50: 4-9 can hardly be given a reading friendly to belief in predictive prophecy without seeing therein a portrait of the savior. Daniel 9: 26, speaking of a Messiah who shall be cut off after 483 years has been regarded from earliest time as a specific prophecy of Christ's death by violent means. Psalm 22 is close to the same quality of specific prediction. 'They will look on him whom they pierced' (John 19: 37; Rev. 1:7) seems to take, they look on me, on him whom they have pierced (Zec. 12: 10) as a prediction of what John 19: 34 says really happened. 'One of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear.' John 19: 37 say this is the fulfilling of the prophecy of Zechariah 12: 10. Whatever one may think of prediction and fulfillment in these passages, the impression of specific reference is hard to escape.
Messianic Witness:
The first creed of Christendom is made up of the part, forming a trinity in unity. To remove any part is to destroy the sum and substance of the gospel. Christ died for our sins. First, there is the fact "Christ died" a fact directly mentioned some 175 times in the New Testament. It is an indisputable fact of history that Jesus "suffered under Pontius Pilate was crucified, dead and buried." Secondly, there is the purpose of such a death "For our sins." There are those who accept the fact but dispute the purpose. They content that Jesus died as a martyr, model in sacrifice, a hero, or was crucified as the result of a blunder. The incontestable fact of scripture, however, is that Christ died for one purpose, namely, to provide a perfect salvation for a sinning race (I Timothy 1: 15).
These supplemented the sacrifice of the law and more fully developed the Messianic idea, and with it the idea of His sacrificial suffering and death. They saw in Him, a living totality of truth. Being the God-man, in whom deity and humanity are conjoined He was conscious of the full range of truth, and was able to speak from this indivisible whole. For this reason He bore as essential relation to all man, and could therefore offer a vicarious and propitiatory sacrifice for them.
Historical Witness:
"In letter of Corinthian, Paul is found combating false theories by adding the important like of the chronological order of Christ's appearance after His resurrection. If only one person had seen Him, there might have been reason to doubt the reliability of the witness."
Paul interpreted the death of Christ for all Christian when he defined his gospel as "first of all" that Christ death for our sins in accordance with the scripture (I cor. 15: 3). This is not the same "spin" as we say; on the crucifixion, that Pilate or the high priest or Saul of Tarsus might have put on the crucifixion of Jesus. The chief biblical meaning of the death of Christ is defined by the need of every man for rescue from the condemnation of death for sin from which by ourselves, we cannot escape.   The concept of the death of Christ as found in New Testament, is simply the completion, which was foreshadowed in the Old Testament. For this, reason Christ said to have according to the scriptures. Our lord represented His death as a ransom for all man. He laid down His life voluntarily, for no man had power to take it from Him. Hence we must regard the crucifixion as not merely an event brought about by circumstances, but as the great end which He came into the world. He was not merely a martyr to truth; His death was sacrificial and propitiatory. This brings us at once to a consideration of the motive, which underlines the atonement, and its vicarious death.
Fulfillment of the Divine Plan:
                  As we study the portrait of Jesus as it is present in the four gospels there is impressed upon us the teaching that He came to earth on a specific mission, and that His whole life was lived and His work of redemption was accomplish in accordance with a divinity pre-determined plan. The arrest, suffering, death by crucifixion and His resurrection on the third day, were not merely predict but were present as necessary in the fulfillment of His mission. In the persist opposition which was carried on by His opponents, in the public rejection of Him by the rulers in church and states, and in His final suffering, death and burial. His mission is representing as being in every step and stage of it voluntary and been carried through to complete fulfillment. He came into the world with the express purpose of making atonement for sin through His suffering and death and the events, which led to that climax were determined in their precise order and time not Him but for Him. Certainly, the gospel writers present the suffering and death of Christ not as an accident or calamity, but as an achievement, an accomplishment. Strange and incredible though His crucifixion and death seemed to the disciples, it was all according to plan, designed to become the ground of forgiveness for men, the doorway into a new and abiding kingdom of righteousness and life.
Misinterpretation of Christ Death:
                             In order to obtain a clearer apprehension of the scripture doctrine of the death of Christ, it is well to look first at the erroneous view of this truth that was been put forward. Many times this subject were been approached with bias and philosophical predilection and result have been an unscriptural doctrine of the atonement. The true scriptural teaching concerning the death of Christ it might be well to briefly examine some of the false theories that have been advanced over the year.
The Martyr theory:
                    This theory, also called the theory, hold that Christ's death was that of a martyr. Men who did not agree with him in these respects killed him because he was faithful to His principle and to what he considered his duty. He is the example of fidelity to truth and duty. This view assumes that the only thing needed to save man is to reform him. Christ's example is to teach man to repent of his sins and to reform.
This theory, however (1) ignored the fundamental idea of the atonement wherein the atonement has to be made to God (Exodus 12: 12, 23; Romans 3: 24; Hebrew 2: 17; 9: 11-14); (2) makes Christ's example sufficient to save, whereas his example is intended for believers only (Mathew 11: 29; 1 Peter 2: 21). (3) Logically lead to a perversion of every fundamental doctrine of scripture, such as inspiration, sin, and the deity of Christ, justification, regeneration, and eternal retribution. Moreover, at lastly, (4) furnish no satisfactory explanation of Christ's unmartyrlike agony in Gethsemane and on the cross, and the father's withdrawal from him (Mathew 26: 37-39; John 12: 27; Paul suffering behavior, Philippians 1: 20-23, and Stephen's (Acts 7: 55-60). Even if the death of Christ as thus interpreted did move men to moral improvement, it cannot atone for the sins already past, nor yet save the sinner (John 6: 53; Acts 20: 28; I Corinthians 11:25; Revelation 7: 14).
The Accident theory:
         "In this theory, there is no significance in the death of Christ. He was a man and, as such, subject to death. His principle and methods did not appeal to the people of his day and so they killed him. It may have unfortunate that so good man was kill, but his death had no meaning for anyone else.""He died at the hands of a mob who did not agree with His teachings. His death was completely unforeseen. The extreme rationalist who disregards the plain teachings scripture holds this view. This is a common humanistic approach." "This theory is held by extreme rationalists and deserved no further discussion. Christ came with the definite purpose of dying and His death was accident."The deficiency of Schweitzer's view centers on the suggestion that Christ death was a mistake. Scripture does not present it in that way. On numerous occasions Jesus predicted His death (Matt. 16: 21; 17: 22; 20: 17-19; 26: 1-5); Christ death was in the plan of God (Acts 2: 23). Moreover, His death had infinite value as a substitutionary atonement (Isa. 53: 4-6).
The Government theory:
This theory holds that God did not actually have to require payment for sin, since he was omnipotent God, he could have set aside that requirement and simply forgiven sins without the payment of a penalty. Then the question is what the purpose of Christ death was? Moreover, there answer is it was God's demonstration of the fact that his law has been broken, that he is the moral lawgiver and governor of the universe, and that why the same kind of penalty would be required whenever the law was broken. Thus Christ did not exactly pay the penalty for the actual sins of any people, but simply suffered to show that God's laws are broken there must some penalty paid.
            The problem of this view again is that it fails to account adequately for all the Scripture that speak of Christ bearing our sins on the cross, of God laying on Christ the iniquity of us all, of Christ dying specifically for our sins, and of Christ being the propitiation for our sins. This view also implies that we cannot rightly trust in Christ's complete work of forgiveness of sin, because he has not actually made payment for those sins. Moreover, it makes the actual earning of forgiveness for something universe. Finally, this theory fails to take adequate account of the unchangeableness of God and the infinite purity of his justice. To say that God can forgive sins without requiring ant penalty is seriously to underestimate the absolute character of the justice of God.
The ultimate step downward in Jesus Christ's humanity was his death. The creator, the life giver of life and of the new new life that constitute victory over death became subject to death. Jesus became subject to the possibility of death, that is, he became mortal, and death was not merely a possibility, but it became actuality. To pay the penalty of death that we deserved because of our sin, Christ died as a sacrifice for us.
From this above discussion, I will like to conclude that the death of Christ is a vicarious death. To remove us from the wrath of God that we deserved, Christ died as a sacrifice for us because of our sin. Moreover, the death of Jesus is also prophesized from the Old Testament and it was fulfill in the New Testament. Death of our Lord Jesus Christ has overcome our separation from God, we needed someone to provide reconciliation and thereby bring us back into fellowship with God.
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The Nature and Origin of the New Testament

1 Bibliography R. E. Brown. Introduction to New Testament: Nature and Origin of the New Testament. Bangalore: Theological Publishers, 2...